Wednesday, May 31, 2006

Tata Surya

Tata Surya


Tata Surya (bahasa Inggris: solar system) terdiri dari sebuah bintang yang disebut matahari dan semua objek yang yang mengelilinginya. Objek-objek tersebut termasuk sembilan buah planet yang sudah diketahui dengan orbit berbentuk elips, meteor, asteroid, komet, dan satelit alami. Tata Surya dipercaya terbentuk semenjak 4.600 juta tahun yang lalu, merupakan hasil penggumpalan gas dan debu di angkasa yang membentuk matahari dan kemudian planet-planet yang mengelilinginya kecuali planet Pluto.

Tata Surya terletak di tepi galaksi Bima Sakti dengan jarak sekitar 2.6 x 10^17 Km dari pusat galaksi. Tata Surya mengeliligi pusat galaksi Bima Sakti dengan kecepatan 220Km/detik, dan dibutuhkan waktu sekitar 250 Juta tahun untuk untuk sekali mengelilingi pusat galaksi. Dengan umur tata Surya yang sekitar 4.6 Milyar tahun, berarti tata surya kita telah mengelilingi pusat galaksi sebanyak 18 kali dari semenjak terbentuk.

Tata Surya dikekalkan oleh pengaruh gaya gravitasi matahari dan sistem yang setara tata surya, yang mempunyai garis pusat setahun kecepatan cahaya, ditandai adanya taburan komet yang disebut awan Oort. Selain itu juga terdapat awan Oort berbentuk piring di bagian dalam tata surya yang dikenali sebagai awan Oort dalam.

Disebabkan oleh orbit planet yang membujur, jarak dan kedudukan planet berbanding kedudukan matahari berubah mengikut kedudukan planet di orbit.

Daftar planet dan jarak rata-rata planet dengan matahari dalam tata surya adalah seperti berikut :

57,9 juta kilometer ke Merkurius
108,2 juta kilometer ke Venus
149,6 juta kilometer ke Bumi
227,9 juta kilometer ke Mars
778,3 juta kilometer ke Jupiter
1.427,0 juta kilometer ke Saturnus
2.871,0 juta kilometer ke Uranus
4.497,0 juta kilometer ke Neptunus
5.913,5 juta kilometer ke Pluto

Terdapat juga planet ke 10 yang belum secara resmi diakui dengan sandi nama Xena dan memiliki bulan yang untuk saat ini diberi sandi nama Grabiel Terdapat juga lingkaran asteroid yang kebanyakan mengelilingi matahari di antara orbit Mars dan Jupiter.

Karena rotasinya terhadap sumbu masing-masing, garis khatulistiwa menjadi lingkar terpanjang yang terdapat di setiap planet dan bintang.


Pranala luar

Diambil dari Wikipedia / Ensiklopedia Bebas.

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