Monday, December 20, 2004

Tokoh - Nobel

FISIKA
NOBEL FISIKA



2004 David J. Gross, H. David Politzer, Frank Wilczek
2003 Alexei A. Abrikosov, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, Anthony J. Leggett
2002 Raymond Davis Jr, AS, Masatoshi Koshiba, Jepang & Riccardo Giacconi, Italia-AS
2001 Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, Carl E. Wieman
2000 Zhores I. Alferov, Herbert Kroemer, Jack S. Kilby
1999 Gerardus 't Hooft, Martinus J.G. Veltman
1998 Robert B. Laughlin, Horst L. Störmer, Daniel C. Tsui
1997 Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, William D. Phillips
1996 David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

1995 Martin L. Perl, AS, Frederick Reines, AS, David Lee, AS, Douglas Osheroff, AS & Robert Ricardson, AS
1994 Dr. Clifford G. Shull. AS & Dr. Bertram Brockhouse, Kanada
1993 Joseph Taylor, Russel Hulse, AS
1992 George Charpak,Prancis
1991 Pierre Giles de Gennes, Prancis
1990 Richard E. Taylor, Jerome I. Freiedman, Henry W. Kendall, AS
1989 Wolfgang Paul, Jerman Barat & Norman F. Ramsey, AS & Hans G. Dehmelt, AS
1988 Leon M. Lederman, Melvin Schwarlz, & Jack Sleinberger, AS
1987 K. Alex Muller, Swiss & J. Georg Bednorz, Jerman
1986 Ernest Ruska dan Gerd Binning,Jmr & Heinrich, Swiss
1985 Prof Klaus Von Klitzing, Jerman Barat
1984 Carlo Rubbia, Itali & Simon van der Merr, Bel
1983 Subrahmayan Shandrasekhar dan William A. Fowler, AS
1982 Kennet G. Wilson, AS
1982 Kannet G. Wilson, AS we /a
1981 Nicolass Boembergen dan Arthur Sclawlow, AS & Kai M .Sieghahn, Swedia
1980 James W.Cronindan Val L Fitch,AS
1979 Steyen Weinberg dan Seldon L. Giashow, AS & Abdus Salam, Pakistan
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa, Sovyet & Arno Penzias dan Robert Wilson, AS
1977 John H. Van Vleck dan Philip W. Anderon, AS & Nevil F. Moot, Inggris
1976 Burton Richter dan Samuel CC ling, AS
1975 James Reinwater, AS & Ben Mottelson, AS-Denmark & Aage Bohr, Denmark
1974 Martin Ryle dan Anthoni Hewish, Inggris
1973 Ivan Giaever, AS & Leo Esaki, Jepang & Brian D. Josephson, Inggris
1972 John Bardean, Leon N. Cooper dan John R. Schrieffer, AS
1971 Dennis Gabor, Inggris
1970 Louis Neel,Prancis & Hannes Alfven, Swedia
1969 Murray Gell-Mann
1968 Luis Alvarez
1967 Hans Bethe
1966 Alfred Kastler
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, Richard P. Feynman
1964 Charles H. Townes, Nicolay G. Basov, Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
1963 Eugene Wigner, Maria Goeppert-Mayer, J. Hans D. Jensen
1962 Lev Landau
1961 Robert Hofstadter, Rudolf Mössbauer
1960 Donald A. Glaser
1959 Emilio Segrè, Owen Chamberlain
1958 Pavel A. Cherenkov, Il´ja M. Frank, Igor Y. Tamm
1957 Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee
1956 William B. Shockley, John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain
1955 Willis E. Lamb, Polykarp Kusch
1954 Max Born, Walther Bothe
1953 Frits Zernike
1952 Felix Bloch, E. M. Purcell
1951 John Cockcroft, Ernest T.S. Walton
1950 Cecil Powell
1949 Hideki Yukawa
1948 Patrick M.S. Blackett
1947 Edward V. Appleton
1946 Percy W. Bridgman
1945 Wolfgang Pauli
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi
1943 Otto Stern
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 Ernest Lawrence
1938 Enrico Fermi
1937 Clinton Davisson, George Paget Thomson
1936 Victor F. Hess, Carl D. Anderson
1935 James Chadwick
1934 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1933 Erwin Schrödinger, Paul A.M. Dirac
1932 Werner Heisenberg
1931 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1930 Venkata Raman
1929 Louis de Broglie
1928 Owen Willans Richardson
1927 Arthur H. Compton, C.T.R. Wilson
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin
1925 James Franck, Gustav Hertz
1924 Manne Siegbahn
1923 Robert A. Millikan
1922 Niels Bohr
1921 Albert Einstein
1920 Charles Edouard Guillaume
1919 Johannes Stark
1918 Max Planck
1917 Charles Glover Barkla
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 William Bragg, Lawrence Bragg
1914 Max von Laue
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
1912 Gustaf Dalén
1911 Wilhelm Wien
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals
1909 Guglielmo Marconi, Ferdinand Braun
1908 Gabriel Lippmann
1907 Albert A. Michelson
1906 J.J. Thomson
1905 Philipp Lenard
1904 Lord Rayleigh
1903 Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie, Marie Curie
1902 Hendrik A. Lorentz, Pieter Zeeman
1901 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen




<>NOBEL FISIKA 2004
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

David J. Gross, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California
Santa Barbara, CA, USA, b. 1941 <>
H. David Politzer, California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA, USA, b. 1949 <>
Frank Wilczek, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Cambridge, MA, USA, b. 1951

NOBEL FISIKA 2002

Raymond Davis Jr, born 1914 (87 years), in Washington, DC, USA (US citizen). PhD in Chemistry 1942 at Yale University, Connecticut, USA. Professor Emeritus at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.
Masatoshi Koshiba, born 1926 (76 years), in Toyohashi , Aichi, Japan (Japanese citizen). PhD 1955 at the University of Rochester, New York, USA. Professor Emeritus at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, Japan.
Riccardo Giacconi, born 1931 (71 years), in Genoa, Italy (US citizen). PhD 1954 at the University of Milan. President of Associated Universities, Inc., Washington, DC, USA.

<>

KIMIA
NOBEL KIMIA


2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose
2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon
2002 John B. Fenn, AS, Koichi Tanaka, Jepang & Kurt Wüthrich, Swiss-AS
2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori, K. Barry Sharpless
2000 Alan Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa
1999 Ahmed Zewail
1998 Walter Kohn, John Pople
1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker, Jens C. Skou
1996 Robert F. Curl, AS, Richard E. Smalley, AS & Sir Harold W. Kroto, Inggris
1995 Paul Crutzen, Belanda & Mario Molin, Mexico & F. Sherwood Rowland, AS
1994 George A.Olah, AS
1993 Kary B. Mullis, AS & Michael Smith, Kanada
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus, AS
1991 Richard E. Ernst, Swiss
1990 Elias James Corey, AS
1989 Thomas E. Ernst, Swiss
1988 Johann Diesenhoffer, Jerman Barat & Robert Huber, Jerman Barat & Hartmut Michel, Jerman
1987 Donald J. Cram, AS, Charles J. Pedersen, AS & Jean Marie Lehn, Prancis
1986 Dudley H. dan Yuan Lee, AS & John C. Polangi, Kanada
1985 Prof. Herbert A. Houpman dan Prof. Jerome Karle, AS
1984 R. Bruce Merrifield, AS
1983 Henry Tanbe, Kanada
1982 Aaron Klug, Afrika Selatan
1981 Kenichi Fakul, Jepang & Roald Hoffmann, AS
1980 Paul Berg,Walter Gilbert, AS & Frederick Sanger, Inggris
1979 Herber C.Brown, AS & George Wittog, Jerman
1978 Peter mitchell, Inggris
1976 William N.Lipscomb, AS
1975 John Conforth, Australia-lnggris, Vladimir Prelog, Yugoslavia-Swiss
1974 Paul J.Flory, AS
1973 Emit Otto Fischer, Jerman Geofrey Wilkinson, Inggris
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen, Stanford Moore & William H. Stein. AS
1971 Gerhard Herzberg, Kanada
1970 Luis F. Leloir, Argentina
1969 Derek Barton, Odd Hassel
1968 Lars Onsager
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald G.W. Norrish, George Porter
1966 Robert S. Mulliken
1965 Robert B. Woodward
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta
1962 Max F. Perutz, John C. Kendrew
1961 Melvin Calvin
1960 Willard F. Libby
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky
1958 Frederick Sanger
1957 Lord Todd
1956 Sir Cyril Hinshelwood, Nikolay Semenov
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud
1954 Linus Pauling
1953 Hermann Staudinger
1952 Archer J.P. Martin, Richard L.M. Synge
1951 Edwin M. McMillan, Glenn T. Seaborg
1950 Otto Diels, Kurt Alder
1949 William F. Giauque
1948 Arne Tiselius
1947 Sir Robert Robinson
1946 James B. Sumner, John H. Northrop, Wendell M. Stanley
1945 Artturi Virtanen
1944 Otto Hahn
1943 George de Hevesy
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 Adolf Butenandt, Leopold Ruzicka
1938 Richard Kuhn
1937 Norman Haworth, Paul Karrer
1936 Peter Debye
1935 Frédéric Joliot, Irène Joliot-Curie
1934 Harold C. Urey
1933 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1932 Irving Langmuir
1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius
1930 Hans Fischer
1929 Arthur Harden, Hans von Euler-Chelpin
1928 Adolf Windaus
1927 Heinrich Wieland
1926 The Svedberg
1925 Richard Zsigmondy
1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1923 Fritz Pregl
1922 Francis W. Aston
1921 Frederick Soddy
1920 Walther Nernst
1919 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1918 Fritz Haber
1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 Richard Willstätter
1914 Theodore W. Richards
1913 Alfred Werner
1912 Victor Grignard, Paul Sabatier
1911 Marie Curie
1910 Otto Wallach
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald
1908 Ernest Rutherford
1907 Eduard Buchner
1906 Henri Moissan
1905 Adolf von Baeyer
1904 Sir William Ramsay
1903 Svante Arrhenius
1902 Emil Fischer
1901 Jacobus H. van 't Hoff


NOBEL KIMIA 2002

John B. Fenn, born 1917 (85 years) in New York City, USA (US citizen). PhD in Chemistry 1940 and Professor Emeritus 1987 at Yale University, Connecticut, USA. Since 1994 Research Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA.
www.has.vcu.edu/che/people/fenn.html

Koichi Tanaka, born 1959 (43 years) in Toyama City, Japan (Japanese citizen). B. Eng at Tohoku University, Japan. R&D Engineer at Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan.
www.shimadzu.com

Kurt Wüthrich, born 1938 (64 years) in Aarberg, Switzerland (Swiss citizen). PhD in Inorganic chemistry 1964 at the University of Basel, Switzerland. Professor in Biophysics at ETH Zürich, Switzerland and Visiting Professor at the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.
www.mol.biol.ethz.ch/wuthrich





KEDOKTERAN
NOBEL KEDOKTERAN

2004 Richard Axel, Linda B. Buck
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur, Sir Peter Mansfield
2002 Sydney Brenner, Inggris, John Sulston, Inggris & Robert Horvitz, AS
2001 Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt, Sir Paul Nurse
2000 Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard, Eric R. Kandel
1999 Günter Blobel
1998 Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro, Ferid Murad
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
1996 Peter C Doherty, Australia & Rolf M. Zinkernagel, Swiss
1995 Edward B. Lewis, AS & Christiane Nusslein Volhard, Jerman & Eric F. Wieschause, AS
1992 Edmond H. Fisher, Edwin G. Krebs,A,
1991 Edwin Neher, Bert Sakmann, Jerman
1990 Joseph E. Murray, E. Donnall Thoma! AS
1989 Dr. J. Michael Bishop, AS & Dr. Harold E. Varmus, AS
1988 Prof. Gertrude Elion, AS & Dr. George H. Hitchings, AS & Sir Jamis Black, Inggris
1987 Susumu Tonegawa, Jepang
1986 Rita Levi M. dan Stantey Cohen, AS
1985 Michaei S. Brown dan Joseph L. Golstein,AS
1984 Cesar Milstein, Inggris & George JF Kohler dan Niels K. Jerne Swiss
1983 Barbara Mc Clintock, AS
1982 Saune Bergstrom dan Bengt Samuel son, Swedia
1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel dan Tosten N. Wiesel, AS
1980 Baruj Benacerraf & George Senil, AS & Jean Dausset, Prancis
1979 Alian M. Cormack, AS & Geoffrey N. Hounsfield, Inggris
1978 Daniel Nathan, AS & Hamilton 0. Smith, AS & Werner Arber, Swiss
1976 Baruch S. Yalow, Roger CL. Guillemil dan Andrew V. Scally, AS
1975 David Baltimore, AS & Howard Temin, AS & Renato Dulbecco, Italy-AS
1974 Albert Claude, Luzember-AS & Eil Palade, Rumania-AS & Christian Rede de Duve, Belgia
1973 Karl von Frisch, Jerman & Konrad Lorenz, Jerman- Austria & Nikolaas Tinbergen, Inggris
1972 Gerald M. Edelman, AS & Rodney R. Porter, Inggris
1971 Earl W. Sutherland Jr, AS
1970 Julius Axelrod, AS & Sir Bernard Katz, Inggris & Ulf von Euler, Swedia

1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey, Salvador E. Luria
1968 Robert W. Holley, H. Gobind Khorana, Marshall W. Nirenberg
1967 Ragnar Granit, Haldan K. Hartline, George Wald
1966 Peyton Rous, Charles B. Huggins
1965 François Jacob, André Lwoff, Jacques Monod
1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen
1963 Sir John Eccles, Alan L. Hodgkin, Andrew F. Huxley
1962 Francis Crick, James Watson, Maurice Wilkins
1961 Georg von Békésy
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet, Peter Medawar
1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg
1958 George Beadle, Edward Tatum, Joshua Lederberg
1957 Daniel Bovet
1956 André F. Cournand, Werner Forssmann, Dickinson W. Richards
1955 Hugo Theorell
1954 John F. Enders, Thomas H. Weller, Frederick C. Robbins
1953 Hans Krebs, Fritz Lipmann
1952 Selman A. Waksman
1951 Max Theiler
1950 Edward C. Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein, Philip S. Hench
1949 Walter Hess, Egas Moniz
1948 Paul Müller
1947 Carl Cori, Gerty Cori, Bernardo Houssay
1946 Hermann J. Muller
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst B. Chain, Sir Howard Florey
1944 Joseph Erlanger, Herbert S. Gasser
1943 Henrik Dam, Edward A. Doisy
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 Gerhard Domagk
1938 Corneille Heymans
1937 Albert Szent-Györgyi
1936 Sir Henry Dale, Otto Loewi
1935 Hans Spemann
1934 George H. Whipple, George R. Minot, William P. Murphy
1933 Thomas H. Morgan
1932 Sir Charles Sherrington, Edgar Adrian
1931 Otto Warburg
1930 Karl Landsteiner
1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Hopkins
1928 Charles Nicolle
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg
1926 Johannes Fibiger
1925 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1924 Willem Einthoven
1923 Frederick G. Banting, John Macleod
1922 Archibald V. Hill, Otto Meyerhof
1921 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1920 August Krogh
1919 Jules Bordet
1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1917 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1914 Robert Bárány
1913 Charles Richet
1912 Alexis Carrel
1911 Allvar Gullstrand
1910 Albrecht Kossel
1909 Theodor Kocher
1908 Ilya Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
1907 Alphonse Laveran
1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal
1905 Robert Koch
1904 Ivan Pavlov
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen
1902 Ronald Ross
1901 Emil von Behring


NOBEL KEDOKTERAN 2002

Sydney Brenner (b 1927), Berkeley, CA, USA, established C. elegans as a novel experimental model organism. This provided a unique opportunity to link genetic analysis to cell division, differentiation and organ development – and to follow these processes under the microscope. Brenner's discoveries, carried out in Cambridge, UK, laid the foundation for this year's Prize.

John Sulston (b 1942), Cambridge, England, mapped a cell lineage where every cell division and differentiation could be followed in the development of a tissue in C. elegans. He showed that specific cells undergo programmed cell death as an integral part of the normal differentiation process, and he identified the first mutation of a gene participating in the cell death process.

Robert Horvitz (b 1947), Cambridge, MA, USA, has discovered and characterized key genes controlling cell death in C. elegans. He has shown how these genes interact with each other in the cell death process and that corresponding genes exist in humans.





EKONOMI
NOBEL EKONOMI

2004 Finn E. Kydland, Edward C. Prescott
2003 Robert F. Engle III, Clive W.J. Granger
2002 Daniel Kahneman, AS_Israel & Vernon L. Smith, AS
2001 George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, Joseph E. Stiglitz
2000 James J. Heckman, Daniel L. McFadden
1999 Robert A. Mundell
1998 Amartya Sen
1997 Robert C. Merton, Myron S. Scholes
1996 William Vickrey, Kanada & Prof, James A Mirrlees, Inggris .Belanda .AS
1995 Prof. Robert Lucas, AS
1994 John C. Harsanyi, John F. Nash, AS & Reinhard Selten, Jerman
1993 Robert Fogel, Douglas Non, AS
1992 Gary S. Becker, AS
1991 Ronald H. Coase, Br. AS "
1990 Harry M. Markowitz, William F. Sharpe, Merton H. Miller, AS
1989 Trygve Haavelmo, Norwegia
1988 Maurice Allais, Prancis
1987 Robert M. Solow, AS
1986 James M. Buchanan, AS
1985 Franco Modigliani, AS
1984 Sir Richard Stone, Inggris
1983 Gerard Dabren, AS
1982 George J. Stigler, AS
1981 James robin, AS
1980 Lawrence R. Klein, AS
1979 Theodore W. Schultz, AS & Sir Arthur Lewis, Inggris
1978 Herbert A. Simon, AS
1977 Bertil Ohlin, Swedia & James E. Meade, Inggris
1976 Milton Friedman, AS
1975 Tjalling Koopmans, AS & Leonid Kontorovich, Sovyet
1974 Gunner Myrdal, Swedia & Friedrich A.von Hayek, Austria
1973 Wassily Leontief, AS
1972 Kenneth J. Arrow, AS & John R. Hick, Inggris
1971 Simon Kuznets, AS
1970 Paul A. Samuelson, AS
1969 Ragnar Frisch, Jan Tinbergen


Finn Kydland dan Edward Prescott

Raih Nobel Ekonomi 2004

Juri The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences 2004 memenang-kan Finn E Kydland (Norwegia) dan Edward Prescott (AS) meraih hadiah Nobel Ekonomi 2004. Karena kontribusi mereka terhadap dinamika ilmu ekonomi makro: Konsistensi waktu pada kebijakan ekonomi dan faktor-faktor di balik siklus bisnis.

NOBEL EKONOMI 2002

Daniel Kahneman, born 1934 (68 years) in Tel Aviv, Israel (US and Israeli citizen). PhD from University of California at Berkeley in 1961. Since 1993, Eugene Higgins Professor of Psychology and Professor of Public Affairs at Princeton University, NJ, USA.

Vernon L. Smith, born 1927 (75 years) in Wichita, KS, USA (US citizen). PhD from Harvard University in 1955. Since 2001, Professor of Economics and Law at George Mason University, VA, USA.




PEACE
NOBEL PERDAMAIAN

The Nobel Peace Prize

2004 Wangari Maathai

2003 Shirin Ebadi

2002 Jimmy Carter

2001 United Nations, Kofi Annan
2000 Kim Dae-jung
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières

1998 John Hume, David Trimble
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, In Jose Ramos Horta (PNG) & Le Duc Tho menolaknya
1995 Joseph Roblate, Oslo
1994 YasserArafat & Yitzhak Rabin, TimurTengah
1993 Nelson MandeIa, FW De KIerk, Afrika Selatan
1992 Rigoberta Menchu, India
1991 Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Myanmar
1990 Mikhail S. Gorbachev, USSR
1989 Dalai Lama, Tibet
1988 UNpF (PBB)
1987 Oscar Arias Sanchez, Costa Rica
1986 Ellie Weisel, AS
1985 Ikatan Dokter International, untuk Pencegahan Perang Nuklir
1984 Uskup Desmon Tutu, Afrika Selatan
1983 lech Walesa, Polandia
1982 Alva Myrdal, Swedia
1981 Kantor Komisi Tinggi PBB untuk Pengungsian
1980 Adolfo Perez Esquivel, Argentina
1979 Ibu Theresa, India
1978 Anwar Sadat, Mesir & Menachem Begin, Israel
1977 Amnesty International
1976 Maried Corrigan, dan Betty Williams, Irlandia
1975 Andrei Skharov, Sovyet
1974 Eisaku Satu, Jepang & Sean Mac Bride, Irlandia
1973 Henry Kissinger, AS & le Duc Tho, Vietnam *)
1971 Willy Brandt, Jerman Barat
1970 Norman E. Bourlaug, AS

1969 International Labour Organization
1968 René Cassin
1967 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1966 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1965 United Nations Children's Fund
1964 Martin Luther King
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1962 Linus Pauling
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld
1960 Albert Lutuli
1959 Philip Noel-Baker
1958 Georges Pire
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson
1956 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1955 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1953 George C. Marshall
1952 Albert Schweitzer
1951 Léon Jouhaux
1950 Ralph Bunche
1949 Lord Boyd Orr
1948 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee
1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott
1945 Cordell Hull
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
1943 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees
1937 Robert Cecil
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1935 Carl von Ossietzky
1934 Arthur Henderson
1933 Sir Norman Angell
1932 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler
1930 Nathan Söderblom
1929 Frank B. Kellogg
1928 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde
1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes
1924 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1923 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1922 Fridtjof Nansen
1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lange
1920 Léon Bourgeois
1919 Woodrow Wilson
1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
1916 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1915 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1914 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1913 Henri La Fontaine
1912 Elihu Root
1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried
1910 Permanent International Peace Bureau
1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault
1906 Theodore Roosevelt
1905 Bertha von Suttner
1904 Institute of International Law
1903 Randal Cremer
1902 Élie Ducommun, Albert Gobat
1901 Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy


Wangari Maathai

Peraih Nobel Perdamaian 2004

Pemenang Nobel Perdamaian 2004 ini tertawa dengan ekspresi bingung ketika dikerubuti oleh wartawan dan ditanya, apa rasanya menjadi. "Saya sangat gembira. Saya benar-benar tak tahu harus berkata apa," kata Wangari Muta Maathai (64) sesaat setelah ia dinobatkan oleh Komite Nobel menjadi pemenang.

Shirin Ebadi

Muslimah Pertama Raih Nobel

Ahli hukum, hakim, pengajar, penulis, dan aktivis pembela hak asasi manusia Iran, Shirin Ebadi (56) meraih hadiah Nobel Perdamaian 2003. Ia merupakan wanita Muslim pertama peraih penghargaan Nobel, tokoh Muslim ketiga setelah Yasser Arafat (1994) dan Anwar Sadat (1978), dan merupakan wanita kesebelas setelah Jody Williams (1997) dalam 103 tahun sejarah Nobel. Ebadi terpilih dari 165 calon, termasuk Paus Yohanes Paulus II dan mantan Presiden Ceko Vaclav Havel yang sebelumnya diunggulkan.

Jimmy Carter

Raih Nobel Perdamaian 2002

Mantan Presiden AS ke-39 Jimmy Carter, meraih hadiah Nobel Perdamaian 2002. Komite Nobel Norwegia menilainya tidak mengenal lelah selama bertahun-tahun mengatasi konflik internasional, memperjuangkan demokrasi, hak-hak asasi manusia dan mendorong pembangunan sosial dan ekonomi.




SASTRA
NOBEL SASTRA


2004 Elfriede Jelinek
2003 J.M. Coetzee
2002 Imre Kertész, Hungaria
2001 V.S. Naipaul
2000 Gao Xingjian
1999 Günter Grass
1998 José Saramago
1997 Dario Fo

1996 Wislawa Szymborska, polandia
1995 Samuas Heaney, Irlandia
1994 Kenzaburo Oe, Jepang
1993 Toni Morrison, AS
1992 Derek Walcott, Swedia
1991 Nadine Gordimer, Afrika Selatan
1990 Oclavio Paz, Mexico
1989 Camilo Jose Cela, Spanyol
1988 Nagib Mahfuz, Mesir
1987 Joseph Brodisky, Mesir
1986 Wole Soyinka, Nigeria
1985 Claude Simon, Prancis
1984 Jaroslav Seifert, Cekoslowakia
1983 William Golding, Inggris
1982 Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kolombia
1981 Elias Canneti, Bulgaria
1980 Czeslaw Milosz, Polish, AS
1979 Odysseus Elytis, Yunani
1978 Isaac Basheilvis Singer, AS
1977 Vicente Aleandre, Spanyol
1976 Saul Bellow, AS
1975 Eugenio Montale, Italia
1974 Eyvind Johnson dan Harry Edmund Martison, Swedia .
1973 Patrick White, Australia
1972 Heinrich Boll, Jerman Barat
1971 Pablo Neruda, Chili
1970 Alexander Solzhenitsyn, Sovyet
1969 Samuel Beckett
1968 Yasunari Kawabata
1967 Miguel Angel Asturias
1966 Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre
1963 Giorgos Seferis
1962 John Steinbeck
1961 Ivo Andric
1960 Saint-John Perse
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo
1958 Boris Pasternak
1957 Albert Camus
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez
1955 Halldór Laxness
1954 Ernest Hemingway
1953 Winston Churchill
1952 François Mauriac
1951 Pär Lagerkvist
1950 Bertrand Russell
1949 William Faulkner
1948 T.S. Eliot
1947 André Gide
1946 Hermann Hesse
1945 Gabriela Mistral
1944 Johannes V. Jensen
1943 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1942 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1941 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1940 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää
1938 Pearl Buck
1937 Roger Martin du Gard
1936 Eugene O'Neill
1935 The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section
1934 Luigi Pirandello
1933 Ivan Bunin
1932 John Galsworthy
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt
1930 Sinclair Lewis
1929 Thomas Mann
1928 Sigrid Undset
1927 Henri Bergson
1926 Grazia Deledda
1925 George Bernard Shaw
1924 Wladyslaw Reymont
1923 William Butler Yeats
1922 Jacinto Benavente
1921 Anatole France
1920 Knut Hamsun
1919 Carl Spitteler
1918 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1917 Karl Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan
1916 Verner von Heidenstam
1915 Romain Rolland
1914 The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section
1913 Rabindranath Tagore
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck
1910 Paul Heyse
1909 Selma Lagerlöf
1908 Rudolf Eucken
1907 Rudyard Kipling
1906 Giosuè Carducci
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz
1904 Frédéric Mistral, José Echegaray
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
1902 Theodor Mommsen
1901 Sully Prudhomme


NOBEL SASTRA 2002
Imre Kertész was born in Budapest on 9th November 1929. He is of Jewish descent. 1944 he was deported to Auschwitz and from there to Buchenwald, where he was liberated in 1945. On his return to Hungary he worked from 1948 for a Budapest newspaper, Világosság, but was dismissed in 1951, when it adopted the party line. After two years of military service he has since supported himself as an independent writer and translator of German authors such as Nietzsche, Hofmannsthal, Schnitzler, Freud, Roth, Wittgenstein and Canetti, who have all had significance for his own writing.

In 1975 Kertész’s first novel, Sorstalanság (Fateless, 1992), was published, a work based on his experiences in Auschwitz and Buchenwald. He has himself said, “When I am thinking about a new novel, I always think of Auschwitz.” This does not mean, however, that Sorstalanság is autobiographical in any simple sense: Kertész says himself that he has used the form of the autobiographical novel but that it is not autobiography. Initially Sorstalanság was refused. When eventually it was published in 1975 it was received with compact silence. Kertész has written about this experience in A kudarc (“Fiasco”), 1988. This novel is normally regarded as the second volume in a trilogy that began with Sorstalanság and of which the third volume is Kaddis a meg nem született gyermekért, 1990 (Kaddish for a Child not Born, 1997). Kaddish is the name of the Jewish prayer for their dead. In Kaddis a meg nem született gyermekért the protagonist of Sorstalanság and A kudarc, György Köves, reappears. His Kaddish is said for the child which he refuses to beget in a world that permitted the existence of Auschwitz. Other prose works are A nyomkereső (“The pathfinder”), 1977, and Az angol labogó (“The English flag”), 1991.

In 1992 Gályanapló (“Galley Diary”), a diary in fictional form, was published. This covers the years 1961–1991. Valaki más : a változás krónikája (“I – Another : chronicle of a metamorphosis"), 1997, continues this inner monologue in the form of notes made during the years 1991–1995. After the political upheavals of 1989, Kertész was able to make more public appearances. His lectures and essays have been collected in A holocaust mint kultúra (“The Holocaust as Culture”), 1993, A gondolatnyi csend, amíg kivégzőoztag újratölt (“Moments of silence while the execution squad reloads”), 1998, and A száműzött nyelv (“The exiled language”), 2001.

Kertész was awarded the Brandenburger Literaturpreis in 1995, the Leipziger Buchpreis zur Europäischen Verständigung in 1997, the Herder-Preis and the WELT-Literaturpreis in 2000, the Ehrenpreis der Robert-Bosch-Stiftung in 2001 and Hans Sahl-Preis in 2002.




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